Multilevel Modeling (MLM) How-To Articles

Hoffman, L., & Walters, R. W. (in press). Catching up on multilevel modeling. Forthcoming in Annual Review of Psychology (73). SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS

Hoffman, L. (2019). On the interpretation of multivariate multilevel model parameters across different combinations of model specification and estimation. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science,2(3), 288-311. PMC7384759. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS

Walters, R. W., Hoffman, L., & Templin, J. (2018). The power to detect and predict individual differences in intra-individual variability using the mixed-effects location-scale model. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 53(3), 360-374.

Walters, R. W. & Hoffman, L. (2017). Applying the hierarchical linear model to longitudinal data. Culture and Education, 29(3), 666-701.

Tuliao, A. P., Hoffman, L., & McChargue, D. E. (2017). Measuring individual differences in responses to date-rape vignettes using latent variable models. Aggressive Behavior, 43(1), 60-73. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS

Cushing, C. C., Walters, R. W., & Hoffman, L. (2014). Aggregated N-of-1 randomized controlled trials: modern data analytics applied to a clinically valid method of intervention effectiveness. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 39, 138-150.

Hoffman, L. (2012). Considering alternative metrics of time: Does anybody really know what “time” is? In J. R. Harring & G. R. Hancock (Eds.), Advances in Longitudinal Methods in the Social and Behavioral Sciences (pp. 255-287). IAP Information Age Publishing

Sliwinski, M. J., Hoffman, L., & Hofer, S. M. (2010). Evaluating convergence of within-person change and between-person age differences in age-heterogeneous longitudinal studies. Research in Human Development, 1(1), 45-60. PMC2909778.

Sliwinski, M. J., Hoffman, L., & Hofer, S. M. (2010). Modeling retest and aging effects in a measurement burst design. In P. Molenaar & K. M. Newel (Eds.), Individual pathways of change: Statistical models for analyzing learning and development (pp. 37-50). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

Hoffman, L., & Stawski, R. S. (2009). Persons as contexts: Evaluating between-person and within-person effects in longitudinal analysis. Research in Human Development, 6(2-3), 97-2009. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS

Hoffman, L. (2007). Multilevel models for examining individual differences in within-person variation and covariation over time. Multivariate Behavioral Research,42(4), 609-629. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS

Hoffman, L., & Rovine, M.J. (2007). Multilevel models for the experimental psychologist: Foundations and illustrative examples. Behavior Research Methods, 39(1), 101-117. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS (updated 2014)

Locker Jr., L., Hoffman, L., & Bovaird, J. A. (2007). On the use of multilevel modeling in the analysis of psycholinguistic data. Behavior Research Methods, 39(4), 723-730. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS


MLM in Practice: Modeling Within-Person Change

Johnson, D. M., Zlotnick, C., Hoffman, L., Palmieri, P., Johnson, N. L., Holmes, S. C., & Ceroni, T. L. (2020). A randomized controlled trial comparing HOPE treatment and present-centered therapy in women residing in shelter with PTSD from intimate partner violence. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 44(4), 539-553. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS

Thiemann-Borque, K., Feldmiller, S., Hoffman, L. , & Johner, S. (2018). Incorporating a peer-mediated approach into speech-generating device intervention: effects on communication of preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 61 , 2045-2061.

Crockett, L. J., Wasserman, A. M., Rudasill, K. M., Hoffman. L., & Kalutskaya, I. (2018). Temperamental anger and effortful control, teacher–child conflict, and externalizing behavior across the elementary school years. Child Development, 89(6), 2176-2195.

Farquharson, K., Hogan, T.P., Hoffman, L., Wang, J., Green, K., and Green, J. R. (2018). A longitudinal study of infants' early speech production and later letter identification. PLoS ONE, 13(10), e0204006.

Robitaille, A., Muniz, G., Lindwall, M., Piccinin, A. M., Hoffman, L., Johansson, B., & Hofer, S. M. (2014). Physical activity and cognitive functioning in the oldest old: Within- and between-person cognitive and psychosocial mediators. European Journal of Aging, 11, 333-347. PMC4295564.

Robitaille, A., Piccinin, A. M., Muniz-Terrera, G., Hoffman, L., Johansson, B., Deeg, D. J., Comijs, H. C., & Hofer, S. M. (2013). Longitudinal mediation of processing speed on aging-related changes in memory and fluid intelligence. Psychology and Aging, 28, 887-901. PMC4014000.

Rice, M. L., Hoffman, L., & Wexler, K. (2009). Judgments of omitted BE and DO in questions as extended finiteness clinical markers of SLI to fifteen years: A study of growth and asymptote. Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 52, 1417-1433. PMC2787761.

Hofer, S. M., Gray, K. M., Piccinin, A. M., Mackinnon, A., Bontempo, D. E., Einfeld, S. L., Hoffman, L., Parmenter, T., & Tonge, B. J. (2009). Correlated and coupled within-person change in emotional and behavior disturbance in individuals with intellectual disability. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 114(5), 307-321. PMCID: PMC2940276.

Savage, J. S., Hoffman, L., & Birch, L. L. (2009). Dieting, restraint, and disinhibition predict women’s weight change over six years. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90, 33-40. PMC2696993.

Ingeborg Berg, A., Hoffman, L., Hassing, L. B., McClearn, G. E., & Johansson, B. (2009). What matters, and what matters most for change in life satisfaction in the oldest-old? A study over six years among individuals 80+. Aging and Mental Health, 13(2), 191-201.

Proctor, D. N., Fouth, E., Hoffman, L., Hofer, S. M., Berg, S., & Johansson, B. (2006). Longitudinal change in physical functional performance in the oldest old: Insight from a study of Swedish twins. Aging: Clinical and Experimental Research, 18(6), 517-530.

Einfeld, S., Piccinin, A. M., Mackinnon, A., Hofer, S. M., Taffe, J., Gray, K. M., Bontempo, D. E., Hoffman, L., Parmenter, T., & Tonge, B. J. (2006). Psychopathology in young people with intellectual disability. Journal of the American Medical Association, 296(16), 1981-1989. PMC2422867.

Rice, M. L., Redmond, S. M., & Hoffman, L. (2006). Mean length of utterance in children with specific language impairment and younger control children shows concurrent validity, stable and parallel growth trajectories. Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 49, 793-808.

Rice, M. L., Tomblin, J. B., Hoffman, L., Richman, W. A., & Marquis, J. (2004). Grammatical tense deficits in children with SLI and nonspecific language impairment: Relationships with nonverbal IQ over time. Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 47(4), 816-834.


MLM in Practice: Modeling Within-Person Fluctuation

Hooker, E. D., Campos, B., Hoffman, L., Zoccola, P. & Dickerson, S. S. (2020). Is receiving social support costly for those higher in subjective socioeconomic status? International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 27(3), 325-336.

Skaff, M., Mullan J., Fisher, L., Almeida, D., Hoffman, L., Masharani, U., & Mohr, D. (2009). Daily negative mood affects fasting glucose in Type 2 Diabetes. Health Psychology, 28(3), 265-272. PMC2810194.

Penrod, J., Yorgason, J., Loeb, S. J., Liu, C. F., Hoffman, L., Gueldner, S. H., & Poon, L. W. (2007). Ecological momentary assessment of older women’s health. Journal of Theory Construction and Testing, 11(2), 67-72.

Kolanowski, A., Hoffman, L., & Hofer, S. M. (2007). Concordance of self-report and informant assessment of emotional well-being in nursing home residents with dementia. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 62B(1), P20-27.

Yorgason, J. B., Almeida, D., Neupert, S., Spiro, A., & Hoffman, L. (2006). A dyadic examination of daily health symptoms and emotional well-being in later life couples. Family Relations, 55, 613-624.


MLM in Practice: Modeling Repeated Measures, Multivariate, and Crossed Designs

Salley, B., Brady, N., Hoffman, L., & Fleming, K. (2020). Preverbal communication complexity in infants. Infancy, 25, 4-21. PMC7055680.

Thiemann-Bourque, K. S., Brady, N. C., & Hoffman, L. (2019). Application of the communication complexity scale in peer and adult assessment contexts for preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 28, 29-42. PMC6503862.

Kurebayashi, K., Hoffman, L., Ryan, C. S., & Murayama, A. (2012). Japanese and American perceptions of group entitativity and autonomy: A multilevel analysis. Cross-Cultural Psychology, 43(2), 349-365.

Kwon, K., Lease, A. M., & Hoffman, L. (2012). The impact of clique membership on children’s peer nominations. Social Development, 21(1), 150-169.

Mills, M., Hollingworth, A., Van der Stigchel, S., Hoffman, L., & Dodd, M. D. (2011). Examining the influence of task set on eye movements and fixations. Journal of Vision, 11(8), 1-15. PMC3163592.

Kemper, S., Hoffman, L., Schmalzried, R., Herman, R., & Kieweg, D. (2011). Tracking talking: Dual task costs of planning and producing speech for young versus older adults. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 18(3), 257-279. PMC3091967.

McDowd, J. M., Hoffman, L., Rozek, E., Lyons, K., Pahwa, R., Burns., J., & Kemper, S. (2011). Understanding verbal fluency in healthy aging, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychology, 25(2), 210-225.

Kemper, S., Schmalzried, R., Hoffman, L., & Herman, R. (2010). Aging and vulnerability of speech production to dual task demands. Psychology and Aging, 25(4), 949-962. PMC3050491.

Schrauf, R. W., & Hoffman, L. (2007). The effects of revisionism on remembered emotion: The valence of voluntary immigrants’ pre-migration autobiographical memories. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21(7), 895-913.


MLM in Practice: Modeling Genetic Associations

Rice, M. L., Taylor, C. L., Zubrick, S. R., Hoffman, L., & Earnest, K. K. (2020). Heritability of Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Non-specific Language Impairment (NLI) at ages 4 and 6 years across phenotypes of speech, language, and nonverbal cognition. Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 63(3), 793-813. PMC7229710.

Rice, M. L., Zubrick, S. R., Taylor, C. L., Hoffman, L., & Gayán, J. (2018). Longitudinal study of language and speech of twins at 4 and 6 years: Twinning effects decrease, zygosity effects disappear, and heritability increases. Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 61 (1), 79-93.