Multilevel Modeling (MLM) How-To Articles

Hoffman, L. (2019). On the interpretation of multivariate multilevel model parameters across different combinations of model specification and estimation. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science,2(3), 288-311. PMC7384759. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS

Walters, R. W., Hoffman, L., & Templin, J. (2018). The power to detect and predict individual differences in intra-individual variability using the mixed-effects location-scale model. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 53(3), 360-374.

Walters, R. W. & Hoffman, L. (2017). Applying the hierarchical linear model to longitudinal data. Culture and Education, 29(3), 666-701.

Tuliao, A. P., Hoffman, L., & McChargue, D. E. (2017). Measuring individual differences in responses to date-rape vignettes using latent variable models. Aggressive Behavior, 43(1), 60-73. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS

Cushing, C. C., Walters, R. W., & Hoffman, L. (2014). Aggregated N-of-1 randomized controlled trials: modern data analytics applied to a clinically valid method of intervention effectiveness. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 39, 138-150.

Hoffman, L. (2012). Considering alternative metrics of time: Does anybody really know what “time” is? In J. R. Harring & G. R. Hancock (Eds.), Advances in Longitudinal Methods in the Social and Behavioral Sciences (pp. 255-287). IAP Information Age Publishing

Sliwinski, M. J., Hoffman, L., & Hofer, S. M. (2010). Evaluating convergence of within-person change and between-person age differences in age-heterogeneous longitudinal studies. Research in Human Development, 1(1), 45-60. PMC2909778.

Sliwinski, M. J., Hoffman, L., & Hofer, S. M. (2010). Modeling retest and aging effects in a measurement burst design. In P. Molenaar & K. M. Newel (Eds.), Individual pathways of change: Statistical models for analyzing learning and development (pp. 37-50). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

Hoffman, L., & Stawski, R. S. (2009). Persons as contexts: Evaluating between-person and within-person effects in longitudinal analysis. Research in Human Development, 6(2-3), 97-2009. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS

Hoffman, L. (2007). Multilevel models for examining individual differences in within-person variation and covariation over time. Multivariate Behavioral Research,42(4), 609-629. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS

Hoffman, L., & Rovine, M.J. (2007). Multilevel models for the experimental psychologist: Foundations and illustrative examples. Behavior Research Methods, 39(1), 101-117. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS (updated 2014)

Locker Jr., L., Hoffman, L., & Bovaird, J. A. (2007). On the use of multilevel modeling in the analysis of psycholinguistic data. Behavior Research Methods, 39(4), 723-730. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS

MLM in Practice: Modeling Within-Person Change

Johnson, D. M., Zlotnick, C., Hoffman, L., Palmieri, P., Johnson, N. L., Holmes, S. C., & Ceroni, T. L. (2020). A randomized controlled trial comparing HOPE treatment and present-centered therapy in women residing in shelter with PTSD from intimate partner violence. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 44(4), 539-553. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS

Thiemann-Borque, K., Feldmiller, S., Hoffman, L. , & Johner, S. (2018). Incorporating a peer-mediated approach into speech-generating device intervention: effects on communication of preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 61 , 2045-2061.

Crockett, L. J., Wasserman, A. M., Rudasill, K. M., Hoffman. L., & Kalutskaya, I. (2018). Temperamental anger and effortful control, teacher–child conflict, and externalizing behavior across the elementary school years. Child Development, 89(6), 2176-2195.

Farquharson, K., Hogan, T.P., Hoffman, L., Wang, J., Green, K., and Green, J. R. (2018). A longitudinal study of infants' early speech production and later letter identification. PLoS ONE, 13(10), e0204006.

Robitaille, A., Muniz, G., Lindwall, M., Piccinin, A. M., Hoffman, L., Johansson, B., & Hofer, S. M. (2014). Physical activity and cognitive functioning in the oldest old: Within- and between-person cognitive and psychosocial mediators. European Journal of Aging, 11, 333-347. PMC4295564.

Robitaille, A., Piccinin, A. M., Muniz-Terrera, G., Hoffman, L., Johansson, B., Deeg, D. J., Comijs, H. C., & Hofer, S. M. (2013). Longitudinal mediation of processing speed on aging-related changes in memory and fluid intelligence. Psychology and Aging, 28, 887-901. PMC4014000.

Rice, M. L., Hoffman, L., & Wexler, K. (2009). Judgments of omitted BE and DO in questions as extended finiteness clinical markers of SLI to fifteen years: A study of growth and asymptote. Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 52, 1417-1433. PMC2787761.

Hofer, S. M., Gray, K. M., Piccinin, A. M., Mackinnon, A., Bontempo, D. E., Einfeld, S. L., Hoffman, L., Parmenter, T., & Tonge, B. J. (2009). Correlated and coupled within-person change in emotional and behavior disturbance in individuals with intellectual disability. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 114(5), 307-321. PMCID: PMC2940276.

Savage, J. S., Hoffman, L., & Birch, L. L. (2009). Dieting, restraint, and disinhibition predict women’s weight change over six years. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90, 33-40. PMC2696993.

Ingeborg Berg, A., Hoffman, L., Hassing, L. B., McClearn, G. E., & Johansson, B. (2009). What matters, and what matters most for change in life satisfaction in the oldest-old? A study over six years among individuals 80+. Aging and Mental Health, 13(2), 191-201.

Proctor, D. N., Fouth, E., Hoffman, L., Hofer, S. M., Berg, S., & Johansson, B. (2006). Longitudinal change in physical functional performance in the oldest old: Insight from a study of Swedish twins. Aging: Clinical and Experimental Research, 18(6), 517-530.

Einfeld, S., Piccinin, A. M., Mackinnon, A., Hofer, S. M., Taffe, J., Gray, K. M., Bontempo, D. E., Hoffman, L., Parmenter, T., & Tonge, B. J. (2006). Psychopathology in young people with intellectual disability. Journal of the American Medical Association, 296(16), 1981-1989. PMC2422867.

Rice, M. L., Redmond, S. M., & Hoffman, L. (2006). Mean length of utterance in children with specific language impairment and younger control children shows concurrent validity, stable and parallel growth trajectories. Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 49, 793-808.

Rice, M. L., Tomblin, J. B., Hoffman, L., Richman, W. A., & Marquis, J. (2004). Grammatical tense deficits in children with SLI and nonspecific language impairment: Relationships with nonverbal IQ over time. Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 47(4), 816-834.

MLM in Practice: Modeling Within-Person Fluctuation

Hooker, E. D., Campos, B., Hoffman, L., Zoccola, P. & Dickerson, S. S. (2020). Is receiving social support costly for those higher in subjective socioeconomic status? International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 27(3), 325-336.

Skaff, M., Mullan J., Fisher, L., Almeida, D., Hoffman, L., Masharani, U., & Mohr, D. (2009). Daily negative mood affects fasting glucose in Type 2 Diabetes. Health Psychology, 28(3), 265-272. PMC2810194.

Penrod, J., Yorgason, J., Loeb, S. J., Liu, C. F., Hoffman, L., Gueldner, S. H., & Poon, L. W. (2007). Ecological momentary assessment of older women’s health. Journal of Theory Construction and Testing, 11(2), 67-72.

Kolanowski, A., Hoffman, L., & Hofer, S. M. (2007). Concordance of self-report and informant assessment of emotional well-being in nursing home residents with dementia. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 62B(1), P20-27.

Yorgason, J. B., Almeida, D., Neupert, S., Spiro, A., & Hoffman, L. (2006). A dyadic examination of daily health symptoms and emotional well-being in later life couples. Family Relations, 55, 613-624.

MLM in Practice: Modeling Repeated Measures, Multivariate, and Crossed Designs

Salley, B., Brady, N., Hoffman, L., & Fleming, K. (2020). Preverbal communication complexity in infants. Infancy, 25, 4-21. PMC7055680.

Thiemann-Bourque, K. S., Brady, N. C., & Hoffman, L. (2019). Application of the communication complexity scale in peer and adult assessment contexts for preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 28, 29-42. PMC6503862.

Kurebayashi, K., Hoffman, L., Ryan, C. S., & Murayama, A. (2012). Japanese and American perceptions of group entitativity and autonomy: A multilevel analysis. Cross-Cultural Psychology, 43(2), 349-365.

Kwon, K., Lease, A. M., & Hoffman, L. (2012). The impact of clique membership on children’s peer nominations. Social Development, 21(1), 150-169.

Mills, M., Hollingworth, A., Van der Stigchel, S., Hoffman, L., & Dodd, M. D. (2011). Examining the influence of task set on eye movements and fixations. Journal of Vision, 11(8), 1-15. PMC3163592.

Kemper, S., Hoffman, L., Schmalzried, R., Herman, R., & Kieweg, D. (2011). Tracking talking: Dual task costs of planning and producing speech for young versus older adults. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 18(3), 257-279. PMC3091967.

McDowd, J. M., Hoffman, L., Rozek, E., Lyons, K., Pahwa, R., Burns., J., & Kemper, S. (2011). Understanding verbal fluency in healthy aging, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychology, 25(2), 210-225.

Kemper, S., Schmalzried, R., Hoffman, L., & Herman, R. (2010). Aging and vulnerability of speech production to dual task demands. Psychology and Aging, 25(4), 949-962. PMC3050491.

Schrauf, R. W., & Hoffman, L. (2007). The effects of revisionism on remembered emotion: The valence of voluntary immigrants’ pre-migration autobiographical memories. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21(7), 895-913.

MLM in Practice: Modeling Genetic Associations

Rice, M. L., Taylor, C. L., Zubrick, S. R., Hoffman, L., & Earnest, K. K. (2020). Heritability of Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Non-specific Language Impairment (NLI) at ages 4 and 6 years across phenotypes of speech, language, and nonverbal cognition. Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 63(3), 793-813. PMC7229710.

Rice, M. L., Zubrick, S. R., Taylor, C. L., Hoffman, L., & Gayán, J. (2018). Longitudinal study of language and speech of twins at 4 and 6 years: Twinning effects decrease, zygosity effects disappear, and heritability increases. Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 61 (1), 79-93.