Multilevel Modeling (MLM) How-To Articles

Walters, R. W. & Hoffman, L. (2017). Applying the hierarchical linear model to longitudinal data. Culture and Education, 29(3), 666-701.

Tuliao, A. P., Hoffman, L., & McChargue, D. E. (2017). Measuring individual differences in responses to date-rape vignettes using latent variable models. Aggressive Behavior, 43(1), 60-73. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS

Cushing, C. C., Walters, R. W., & Hoffman, L. (2014). Aggregated N-of-1 randomized controlled trials: modern data analytics applied to a clinically valid method of intervention effectiveness. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 39, 138-150.

Hoffman, L., & Stawski, R. S. (2009). Persons as contexts: Evaluating between-person and within-person effects in longitudinal analysis. Research in Human Development, 6(2-3), 97-2009. ELECTRONIC APPENDIX

Hoffman, L. (2007). Multilevel models for examining individual differences in within-person variation and covariation over time. Multivariate Behavioral Research,42(4), 609-629. ELECTRONIC APPENDICES

Hoffman, L., & Rovine, M.J. (2007). Multilevel models for the experimental psychologist: Foundations and illustrative examples. Behavior Research Methods, 39(1), 101-117. ELECTRONIC APPENDICES (updated 2014)

Locker Jr., L., Hoffman, L., & Bovaird, J. A. (2007). On the use of multilevel modeling in the analysis of psycholinguistic data. Behavior Research Methods, 39(4), 723-730. ELECTRONIC APPENDICES


MLM in Practice: Modeling Within-Person Change

Robitaille, A., Muniz, G., Lindwall, M., Piccinin, A. M., Hoffman, L., Johansson, B., & Hofer, S. M. (2014). Physical activity and cognitive functioning in the oldest old: Within- and between-person cognitive and psychosocial mediators. European Journal of Aging, 11, 333-347. PMC4295564.

Robitaille, A., Piccinin, A. M., Muniz-Terrera, G., Hoffman, L., Johansson, B., Deeg, D. J., Comijs, H. C., & Hofer, S. M. (2013). Longitudinal mediation of processing speed on aging-related changes in memory and fluid intelligence. Psychology and Aging, 28, 887-901. PMC4014000.

Rice, M. L., Hoffman, L., & Wexler, K. (2009). Judgments of omitted BE and DO in questions as extended finiteness clinical markers of SLI to fifteen years: A study of growth and asymptote. Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 52, 1417-1433. PMC2787761.

Hofer, S. M., Gray, K. M., Piccinin, A. M., Mackinnon, A., Bontempo, D. E., Einfeld, S. L., Hoffman, L., Parmenter, T., & Tonge, B. J. (2009). Correlated and coupled within-person change in emotional and behavior disturbance in individuals with intellectual disability. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 114(5), 307-321. PMCID: PMC2940276.

Savage, J. S., Hoffman, L., & Birch, L. L. (2009). Dieting, restraint, and disinhibition predict women’s weight change over six years. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90, 33-40. PMC2696993.

Ingeborg Berg, A., Hoffman, L., Hassing, L. B., McClearn, G. E., & Johansson, B. (2009). What matters, and what matters most for change in life satisfaction in the oldest-old? A study over six years among individuals 80+. Aging and Mental Health, 13(2), 191-201.

Proctor, D. N., Fouth, E., Hoffman, L., Hofer, S. M., Berg, S., & Johansson, B. (2006). Longitudinal change in physical functional performance in the oldest old: Insight from a study of Swedish twins. Aging: Clinical and Experimental Research, 18(6), 517-530.

Einfeld, S., Piccinin, A. M., Mackinnon, A., Hofer, S. M., Taffe, J., Gray, K. M., Bontempo, D. E., Hoffman, L., Parmenter, T., & Tonge, B. J. (2006). Psychopathology in young people with intellectual disability. Journal of the American Medical Association, 296(16), 1981-1989. PMC2422867.

Rice, M. L., Redmond, S. M., & Hoffman, L. (2006). Mean length of utterance in children with specific language impairment and younger control children shows concurrent validity, stable and parallel growth trajectories. Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 49, 793-808.

Rice, M. L., Tomblin, J. B., Hoffman, L., Richman, W. A., & Marquis, J. (2004). Grammatical tense deficits in children with SLI and nonspecific language impairment: Relationships with nonverbal IQ over time. Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 47(4), 816-834.


MLM in Practice: Modeling Within-Person Fluctuation

Skaff, M., Mullan J., Fisher, L., Almeida, D., Hoffman, L., Masharani, U., & Mohr, D. (2009). Daily negative mood affects fasting glucose in Type 2 Diabetes. Health Psychology, 28(3), 265-272. PMC2810194.

Penrod, J., Yorgason, J., Loeb, S. J., Liu, C. F., Hoffman, L., Gueldner, S. H., & Poon, L. W. (2007). Ecological momentary assessment of older women’s health. Journal of Theory Construction and Testing, 11(2), 67-72.

Kolanowski, A., Hoffman, L., & Hofer, S. M. (2007). Concordance of self-report and informant assessment of emotional well-being in nursing home residents with dementia. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 62B(1), P20-27.

Yorgason, J. B., Almeida, D., Neupert, S., Spiro, A., & Hoffman, L. (2006). A dyadic examination of daily health symptoms and emotional well-being in later life couples. Family Relations, 55, 613-624.


MLM in Practice: Modeling Repeated Measures, Multivariate, and Crossed Designs

Kurebayashi, K., Hoffman, L., Ryan, C. S., & Murayama, A. (2012). Japanese and American perceptions of group entitativity and autonomy: A multilevel analysis. Cross-Cultural Psychology, 43(2), 349-365.

Kwon, K., Lease, A. M., & Hoffman, L. (2012). The impact of clique membership on children’s peer nominations. Social Development, 21(1), 150-169.

Mills, M., Hollingworth, A., Van der Stigchel, S., Hoffman, L., & Dodd, M. D. (2011). Examining the influence of task set on eye movements and fixations. Journal of Vision, 11(8), 1-15. PMC3163592.

Kemper, S., Hoffman, L., Schmalzried, R., Herman, R., & Kieweg, D. (2011). Tracking talking: Dual task costs of planning and producing speech for young versus older adults. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 18(3), 257-279. PMC3091967.

McDowd, J. M., Hoffman, L., Rozek, E., Lyons, K., Pahwa, R., Burns., J., & Kemper, S. (2011). Understanding verbal fluency in healthy aging, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychology, 25(2), 210-225.

Kemper, S., Schmalzried, R., Hoffman, L., & Herman, R. (2010). Aging and vulnerability of speech production to dual task demands. Psychology and Aging, 25(4), 949-962. PMC3050491.

Schrauf, R. W., & Hoffman, L. (2007). The effects of revisionism on remembered emotion: The valence of voluntary immigrants’ pre-migration autobiographical memories. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21(7), 895-913.